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Battle of Paris (1814)

POI: 48.856578, 2.351828
The Battle of Paris was fought on March 30–31, 1814 between the Sixth Coalition—consisting of Russia, Austria, and Prussia—and the French Empire. After a day of fighting in the suburbs of Paris, the French surrendered on March 31, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition and forcing Emperor Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile.
Background
Napoleon was retreating from his failed invasion of Russia in 1812. With the Russian armies following up victory, the Sixth Coalition was formed with Russia, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Sweden, Spain and other nations hostile to the French Empire. Even though the French were victorious in the initial battles during their campaign in Germany, the Coalition armies eventually joined together and defeated them at the Battle of Leipzig in the autumn of 1813. After the battle, the Pro-French German Confederation of the Rhine collapsed, thereby losing Napoleon's hold on Germany east of the Rhine. The supreme commander of the Coalition forces in the theatre and the paramount monarch among the three main Coalition monarchs, the Russian Tsar Alexander I, then ordered all Coalition forces in Germany to cross the Rhine and invade France.
Prelude
Campaign in northeastern France
The Coalition forces, numbering more than 400,000 and divided into three groups, finally entered northeastern France in January 1814. Facing them in the theatre are the French forces numbering only about 70,000 men, but they had the advantage of fighting in friendly territory, shorter supply lines, and more secure lines of communication. Utilizing his advantages, Napoleon defeated the divided Coalition forces in detail, starting with the battles at Brienne and La Rothière, but could not stop the latter's advance. He then launched his brilliant six-day campaign against the huge Coalition army, under Blucher, threatening Paris to its northeast at the Aisne River. He successfully defeated and halted it, but could not seize the strategic initiative back in their favor as Blucher's forces were still largely intact. The Austrian emperor Francis I and King Frederick William III of Prussia felt very demoralized upon hearing the setbacks brought about by Napoleon's victories since the start of the campaign. They even considered ordering a general retreat. But the Tsar Alexander I was far more determined than ever to victoriously enter Paris whatever the cost, imposing his will upon Schwarzenberg and the wavering monarchs. Meanwhile, shifting his forces from the Aisne to this sector, Napoleon and his army engaged another Coalition army, under Schwarzenberg, which was also threatening Paris to its southeast near the Aube River, at the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube on 20 March. He was successful in defeating this army, but it was not enough to halt it in time, as it later linked up with Blucher's army at Meaux on 28 March. After this the Coalition forces advanced yet again towards Paris. Until this battle it had been nearly 400 years since a foreign...   ... (English)
Schlacht bei Paris - Deutsch -> English  
Slag om Parijs - Nederlandse -> English  
Взятие Парижа (1814) - Русский -> English  
Bataille de Paris (1814) - Français -> English  
Obrona Paryża - Polska -> English  
Взяття Парижа (1814) - Український -> English  
Battaglia di Parigi - Italiano -> English  
Batalla de París (1814) - Español -> English  
Bitva o Paříž - České -> English  
Batalha de Paris (1814) - Português -> English  
Párizsi csata (1814) - Magyar -> English  
Pariisin taistelu (1814) - Suomalainen -> English  
by Panoramio
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