Virtual tour of Roman Republic. Panorama of Roman Republic. Maps, travel, photos, videos.

 [+]
Description  panorama

Roman Republic

POI: 41.900000, 12.500000
The Roman Republic (Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, from central Italy to the entire Italian peninsula. By the following century, it included North Africa, Spain, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France, Greece, and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of civil wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar, which led to the transition from republic to empire. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation. Historians have variously proposed Julius Caesar's crossing of the Rubicon River in 49 BC, Caesar's appointment as dictator for life in 44 BC, and the defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. However, most use the same date as did the ancient Romans themselves, the Roman Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian and his adopting the title Augustus in 27 BC, as the defining event ending the Republic. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners. Over time, the laws that gave patricians exclusive rights to Rome's highest offices were repealed or weakened, and leading plebeian families became full members of the aristocracy. The leaders of the Republic developed a strong tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military and political success inextricably linked. Many of Rome's legal and legislative structures (later codified into the Justinian Code, and again into the Napoleonic Code) can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states and international organizations.
Military history
The exact causes and motivations for Rome's military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism, historians typically take a much more nuanced view. They argue that Rome's expansion was driven by short-term defensive and inter-state factors (that is, relations with city-states and kingdoms outside...   ... (English)
Römische Republik - Deutsch -> English  
Romeinse Republiek - Nederlandse -> English  
Римская республика - Русский -> English  
République romaine - Français -> English  
Republika rzymska - Polska -> English  
Римська республіка - Український -> English  
Repubblica romana - Italiano -> English  
República romana - Español -> English  
共和政ローマ - 日本語 -> English  
República Romana - Català -> English  Português -> English  
Римска република - Српска -> English  
Romos respublika - Lietuvos -> English  
Den romerske republikk - Norske -> English  
Romerska republiken - Svenska -> English  
Római Köztársaság - Magyar -> English  
Romerske republik - Danske -> English  
Rooman tasavalta - Suomalainen -> English  
罗马共和国 - 简体中文 -> English  
by Panoramio
Roma Termini tren geltokia
Roma Termini tren geltokia
Iñaki Lasa Rodríguez
go place
Stazione Termini
Stazione Termini
Antonio Biondi
go place
Roma Stazione Termini 1989-© by leo1383
Roma Stazione Termini 1989-© by leo1383
leo1383
go place
Santa Maria di Maggiore
Santa Maria di Maggiore
Markus Källander
go place
Bazylika Santa Maria Maggiore - Kaplica Betlejemska - szczątki żłobka -Rzym
Bazylika Santa Maria Maggiore - Kaplica Betlejemska - szczątki żłobka -Rzym
romulus111
go place
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore night view
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore night view
GuoJunjun
go place
L'attesa - Love waiting -  gillos
L'attesa - Love waiting - gillos
gillos - sergio
go place