Virtual tour of Toruń. Panorama of Toruń. Maps, travel, photos, videos.

 [+]
Description  panorama

Toruń

POI: 53.022222, 18.611111
Toruń [ˈtɔruɲ] (German: Thorn) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula River. Its population was 202,591 as of June 2016. Toruń is one of the oldest cities in Poland. The medieval old town of Toruń is the birthplace of Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. In 1997 the medieval part of the city was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2007 the Old Town in Toruń was added to the list of Seven Wonders of Poland. Previously it was the capital of the Toruń Voivodeship (1975–98) and the Pomeranian Voivodeship (1921–45). Since 1999, Toruń has been a seat of the self-government of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship and, as such, is one of its two capitals (together with Bydgoszcz). The cities and neighboring counties form the Bydgoszcz-Toruń twin city metropolitan area.
History
The first settlement in the vicinity of Toruń is dated by archaeologists to 1100 BC (Lusatian culture). During early medieval times, in the 7th through 13th centuries, it was the location of an old Slavonic settlement, at a ford in the Vistula river. In spring 1231 the Teutonic Knights crossed the river Vistula at the height of Nessau and established a fortress. On 28 December 1233, the Teutonic Knights Hermann von Salza and Hermann Balk, signed the foundation charters for Thorn and Kulm. The original document was lost in 1244. The set of rights in general is known as Kulm law. In 1236, due to frequent flooding, it was relocated to the present site of the Old Town. In 1263 Franciscan monks settled in the city, followed in 1239 by Dominicans. In 1264 the adjacent New Town was founded predominantly to house Torun's growing population of craftsmen and artisans. In 1280, the city (or as it was then, both cities) joined the mercantile Hanseatic League, and thus became an important medieval trade centre. The First Peace of Thorn ending the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War was signed in the city in February 1411. In 1440, the gentry of Thorn formed the Prussian Confederation, and in 1454 rose with the Confederation against the Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights in the Thirteen Years' War. After almost 200 years, the New and Old Towns amalgamated in 1454. The Poles destroyed the Teutonic castle. The Thirteen Years' War ended in 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorn, in which the Teutonic Order ceded their control over western provinces, henceforth Royal Prussia. Thorn remained a free city, now under the patronage of the Polish king. In 1557, during the Protestant Reformation, the city adopted Protestantism. Under Mayor Heinrich Stroband (1586–1609), the city became centralized. Administrative power passed into the hands of the city council. In 1595 Jesuits arrived to promote the Counter-Reformation, taking control of St. John's Church. The Protestant city officials tried to limit the influx of Catholics into the city, as Catholics (Jesuits and Dominican friars) already controlled most of the churches, leaving only St. Mary's to Protestant citizens. In 1677 the Prussian...   ... (English)
Toruń - Deutsch -> English  Nederlandse -> English  Français -> English  Polska -> English  Italiano -> English  Español -> English  Català -> English  Português -> English  Norske -> English  Svenska -> English  Magyar -> English  Danske -> English  Suomalainen -> English  
Торунь - Русский -> English  Український -> English  
トルン - 日本語 -> English  
Toruň - České -> English  
Торуњ - Српска -> English  
Torunė - Lietuvos -> English  
托伦 - 简体中文 -> English  
by Panoramio