Virtual tour of Olisipo. Panorama of Olisipo. Maps, travel, photos, videos.

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Olisipo

POI: 38.712220, -9.133973
Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia Olisipo (in Latin: Olisippo or Ulyssippo ; in Greek: Ολισσιπο, Olissipo, or Ολισσιπόνα, Olissipóna) was the ancient name of modern-day Lisbon while part of the Roman Empire.
Background
During the Punic wars, after the defeat of Hannibal the Romans decided to deprive Carthage of its most valuable possession, Hispania. After the defeat of the Carthaginians by Scipio Africanus in eastern Hispania, the pacification of western Hispania was led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus. He obtained the alliance of Olisipo (which sent men to fight alongside the Roman legions against the northwestern Celtic tribes) by integrating it into the Empire in 138 BC. Between 31 BC and 27 BC the city became a Municipium. Local authorities were granted self-rule over a territory that extended 50 kilometres (31 mi). Exempt from taxes, its citizens (belonging to the Galeria tribe) were given the privileges of Roman citizenship (Civium Romanorum), and the city was integrated within the Roman province of Lusitania (whose capital was Emerita Augusta). Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus also fortified the city, building city walls as a defence against Lusitanian raids and rebellions. Among the majority of Latin speakers lived a large minority of Greek traders and slaves. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela. The city population is estimated to have been around 30,000 at the time. Earthquakes were documented in 60 BC, several between 47 and 44 BC, several in 33 AD, and a strong quake in 382 AD, but the exact amount of damage to the city is unknown.
The city
Buildings
During the time of Augustus (63 BC to 14 AD) the Romans built a large theatre (which was restored in 57 AD on the order of Caius Heius Primus). The galleries underneath the current Rua da Prata date from 20-35 AD; they were rebuilt in 330 AD. The Thermae Cassiorum (Cassian Baths, relating to Quintus Cassius Longinus and Lucius Cassius) were built in 44 AD. The building was renovated in 336 AD. Several temples were built in the city, dedicated to Jupiter, Concordia, Livia, Diana or Minerva (on the castle hill), Cybele (near current Largo da Madalena), Tethys (current São Nicolau church) and Idae Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor), to the Imperial Cult and to Vestal Virgins (in Chelas). A large necropolis from the 1st-4th centuries AD existed under Praça da Figueira and it is known that a large forum (probably in current Largo dos Lóis) and an aqueduct were built. A circus and hippodrome was built around the 3rd or 4th century AD. Buildings such as insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) existed in the area between the modern Castle Hill and downtown. The city wall was strengthened in the 4th to 5th century AD, and around the city there were also bridges (in Sacavém and Alcântara) and villae.
Economy
Economically, Olisipo was known for its garum, a sort of fish sauce highly prized by the elites...   ... (English)
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